Threads are topical connections between messages on a virtual " corkboard ". The page was accessible by a special "What's New" button in the Mosaic web browser. The earliest instance of a commercial blog was on the first business to consumer Web site created in by Ty, Inc.
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The entries were maintained by featured Beanie Babies that were voted for monthly by Web site visitors. The modern blog evolved from the online diary where people would keep a running account of the events in their personal lives. Most such writers called themselves diarists, journalists , or journalers. Justin Hall , who began personal blogging in while a student at Swarthmore College , is generally recognized as one of the earlier bloggers,  as is Jerry Pournelle.
Daily Net News ran links and daily reviews of new websites, mostly in Australia. Another early blog was Wearable Wireless Webcam, an online shared diary of a person's personal life combining text, digital video, and digital pictures transmitted live from a wearable computer and EyeTap device to a web site in This practice of semi-automated blogging with live video together with text was referred to as sousveillance , and such journals were also used as evidence in legal matters.
Some early bloggers, such as The Misanthropic Bitch , who began in , actually referred to their online presence as a zine , before the term blog entered common usage. Early blogs were simply manually updated components of common Websites. In , the "Online Diary" on the Ty, Inc. Web site was produced and updated manually before any blogging programs were available. Posts were made to appear in reverse chronological order by manually updating text based HTML code using FTP software in real time several times a day.
To users, this offered the appearance of a live diary that contained multiple new entries per day. At the beginning of each new day, new diary entries were manually coded into a new HTML file, and the start of each month, diary entries were archived into its own folder which contained a separate HTML page for every day of the month. Then menus that contained links to the most recent diary entry were updated manually throughout the site. This text-based method of organizing thousands of files served as a springboard to define future blogging styles that were captured by blogging software developed years later.
The evolution of electronic and software tools to facilitate the production and maintenance of Web articles posted in reverse chronological order made the publishing process feasible to a much larger and less technically-inclined population. Ultimately, this resulted in the distinct class of online publishing that produces blogs we recognize today.
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For instance, the use of some sort of browser-based software is now a typical aspect of "blogging". Blogs can be hosted by dedicated blog hosting services , on regular web hosting services , or run using blog software.
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After a slow start, blogging rapidly gained in popularity. Blog usage spread during and the years following, being further popularized by the near-simultaneous arrival of the first hosted blog tools:. An early milestone in the rise in importance of blogs came in , when many bloggers focused on comments by U. Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott.
Senator Strom Thurmond , praised Senator Thurmond by suggesting that the United States would have been better off had Thurmond been elected president. Lott's critics saw these comments as a tacit approval of racial segregation , a policy advocated by Thurmond's presidential campaign.
This view was reinforced by documents and recorded interviews dug up by bloggers. Though Lott's comments were made at a public event attended by the media, no major media organizations reported on his controversial comments until after blogs broke the story. Blogging helped to create a political crisis that forced Lott to step down as majority leader. Similarly, blogs were among the driving forces behind the " Rathergate " scandal.
To wit: television journalist Dan Rather presented documents on the CBS show 60 Minutes that conflicted with accepted accounts of President Bush's military service record. Bloggers declared the documents to be forgeries and presented evidence and arguments in support of that view. Many bloggers view this scandal as the advent of blogs' acceptance by the mass media, both as a news source and opinion and as means of applying political pressure.
Though often seen as partisan gossips, [ citation needed ] bloggers sometimes lead the way in bringing key information to public light, with mainstream media having to follow their lead. More often, however, news blogs tend to react to material already published by the mainstream media. Meanwhile, an increasing number of experts blogged, making blogs a source of in-depth analysis. In Russia , some political bloggers have started to challenge the dominance of official, overwhelmingly pro-government media. Bloggers such as Rustem Adagamov and Alexei Navalny have many followers and the latter's nickname for the ruling United Russia party as the "party of crooks and thieves" has been adopted by anti-regime protesters.
By , the role of blogs became increasingly mainstream, as political consultants , news services, and candidates began using them as tools for outreach and opinion forming. Blogging was established by politicians and political candidates to express opinions on war and other issues and cemented blogs' role as a news source. See Howard Dean and Wesley Clark. Israel was among the first national governments to set up an official blog. The impact of blogging upon the mainstream media has also been acknowledged by governments.
In , the presence of the American journalism industry had declined to the point that several newspaper corporations were filing for bankruptcy, resulting in less direct competition between newspapers within the same circulation area.
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Discussion emerged as to whether the newspaper industry would benefit from a stimulus package by the federal government. There are many different types of blogs, differing not only in the type of content, but also in the way that content is delivered or written. As the popularity of blogging continues to rise, the commercialisation of blogging is rapidly increasing. Many corporations and companies collaborate with bloggers to increase advertising and engage online communities towards their products.
In the book Fans, Bloggers, and Gamers , Henry Jenkins stated that "Bloggers take knowledge in their own hands, enabling successful navigation within and between these emerging knowledge cultures. One can see such behaviour as co-optation into commodity culture insofar as it sometimes collaborates with corporate interests, but one can also see it as increasing the diversity of media culture, providing opportunities for greater inclusiveness, and making more responsive to consumers.
As of [update] , blogging had become such a mania that a new blog was created every second of every minute of every hour of every day. There are essentially two measures of this: popularity through citations, as well as popularity through affiliation i. The basic conclusion from studies of the structure of blogs is that while it takes time for a blog to become popular through blogrolls, permalinks can boost popularity more quickly, and are perhaps more indicative of popularity and authority than blogrolls, since they denote that people are actually reading the blog's content and deem it valuable or noteworthy in specific cases.
The blogdex project was launched by researchers in the MIT Media Lab to crawl the Web and gather data from thousands of blogs in order to investigate their social properties. Information was gathered by the tool for over four years, during which it autonomously tracked the most contagious information spreading in the blog community, ranking it by recency and popularity. It can, therefore, [ original research?
The project was replaced by tailrank. Blogs are given rankings by Alexa Internet web hits of Alexa Toolbar users , and formerly by blog search engine Technorati based on the number of incoming links Technorati stopped doing this in In August , Technorati found that the most linked-to blog on the internet was that of Chinese actress Xu Jinglei. Many bloggers, particularly those engaged in participatory journalism , are amateur journalists, and thus they differentiate themselves from the professional reporters and editors who work in mainstream media organizations.
Other bloggers are media professionals who are publishing online, rather than via a TV station or newspaper, either as an add-on to a traditional media presence e. Some institutions and organizations see blogging as a means of "getting around the filter" of media " gatekeepers " and pushing their messages directly to the public. Many mainstream journalists, meanwhile, write their own blogs—well over , according to CyberJournalist. Some bloggers have moved over to other media. In counterpoint, Hugh Hewitt exemplifies a mass media personality who has moved in the other direction, adding to his reach in "old media" by being an influential blogger.
Blogs have also had an influence on minority languages , bringing together scattered speakers and learners; this is particularly so with blogs in Gaelic languages. Minority language publishing which may lack economic feasibility can find its audience through inexpensive blogging. There are examples of bloggers who have published books based on their blogs, e.
Blog-based books have been given the name blook.holfurtvewarm.tk
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A prize for the best blog-based book was initiated in ,  the Lulu Blooker Prize. Consumer-generated advertising is a relatively new and controversial development, and it has created a new model of marketing communication from businesses to consumers. Among the various forms of advertising on blog, the most controversial are the sponsored posts.
Blogs have led to some disintermediation and a breakdown of the traditional advertising model, where companies can skip over the advertising agencies previously the only interface with the customer and contact the customers directly via social media websites. On the other hand, new companies specialised in blog advertising have been established, to take advantage of this new development as well. However, there are many people who look negatively on this new development.
Some believe that any form of commercial activity on blogs will destroy the blogosphere's credibility. Blogging can result in a range of legal liabilities and other unforeseen consequences. Several cases have been brought before the national courts against bloggers concerning issues of defamation or liability.
Internet Service Providers ISPs , in general, are immune from liability for information that originates with third parties U. In Doe v. Cahill , the Delaware Supreme Court held that stringent standards had to be met to unmask the anonymous bloggers , and also took the unusual step of dismissing the libel case itself as unfounded under American libel law rather than referring it back to the trial court for reconsideration.
The Cahills amended their original complaint, and the mayor settled the case rather than going to trial. The plaintiff was supported by the Malaysian government. In the United States, blogger Aaron Wall was sued by Traffic Power for defamation and publication of trade secrets in The case was dismissed for lack of personal jurisdiction, and Traffic Power failed to appeal within the allowed time. Employees who blog about elements of their place of employment can begin to affect the reputation of their employer, either in a positive way, if the employee is praising the employer and its workplaces, or in a negative way, if the blogger is making negative comments about the company or its practices.
In general, attempts by employee bloggers to protect themselves by maintaining anonymity have proved ineffective. Mr Justice Eady refused to grant an order to protect the anonymity of Richard Horton.
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Horton was a police officer in the United Kingdom who blogged about his job under the name "NightJack". Delta Air Lines fired flight attendant Ellen Simonetti because she posted photographs of herself in uniform on an airplane and because of comments posted on her blog "Queen of Sky: Diary of a Flight Attendant" which the employer deemed inappropriate. Simonetti took legal action against the airline for "wrongful termination, defamation of character and lost future wages". In early , Erik Ringmar, a senior lecturer at the London School of Economics , was ordered by the convenor of his department to "take down and destroy" his blog in which he discussed the quality of education at the school.
Mark Jen was terminated in after 10 days of employment as an assistant product manager at Google for discussing corporate secrets on his personal blog, then called 99zeros and hosted on the Google-owned Blogger service.